Daulatabad also known as Devagiri, is a town which includes the Devagiri-Daulatabad fort. It is a 14th-century fort city in Maharashtra state of India, about 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) northwest of Aurangabad. The place was originally named Devagiri. It stands on a conical hill, about 200 meters high. Much of the lower slopes of the hill has been cut away by Yadava dynasty rulers to leave 50 meter vertical sides to improve defenses. The fort is a place of extraordinary strength. The only means of access to the summit is by a narrow bridge, with passage for not more than two people abreast, and a long gallery, excavated in the rock, which has for the most part a very gradual upward slope .The city is said to have been founded c. 1187 by Bhillama V,son of Mallugi, a Yadava prince who renounced his allegiance to the Chalukyas and established the power of the Yadava dynasty in the west.He took over the Chalukya capital of Kalyani in 1190 and founded Devagiri (now Daulatabad) as the capital of the Yadava dynasty.The Yadavas of Devagiri patronised Marathi which was their court language.There is a belief that Devagiri was built in 1203 AD by a Dhangar or herdsman who acquired vast wealth by his good fortune. He had a brother who was a shepherd named ‘Raja Ram’ and in correlation with it he assumed the rank of a Raja (King).
Alauddin Khalji was a nephew and a son-in-law of Jalaluddin Khalji, the ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. At that time, he was the governor of a province within the Sultanate and lived in the provincial capital Kara. The Yadava kingdom was located to the south of the Sultanate, in the Deccan region. The Paramara and the Chandela kingdoms, which separated the Delhi Sultanate and the Yadava kingdom, had declined in power. Alauddin wanted to usurp the power from Jalaluddin and had decided to plunder other kingdoms to raise money towards this objective. During his 1293 raid on Bhilsa, he had come to know about the immense wealth of the Yadava capital of Devagiri.Ramadeva, was a ruler of the Yadava dynasty of Devagiri region in India. He seized the throne from his cousin Ammana, and expanded his kingdom by fighting his Hindu neighbours such as the Paramaras, the Vaghelas, the Hoysalas, and the Kakatiyas.Nagadeva-Charita states that Ramachandra killed Ammana, and that Ramachandra’s ultimate defeat against the Muslims was a result of this sin.
Over the next few years, he made preparations to attack Devagiri. He intended to complete the raid secretly and in a very short time, to avoid suspicion of Sultan Jalaluddin and to prevent any countermeasures by the Hindu kingdoms of Deccan.Therefore, he spread the false news that he was marching to Chanderi. He handed over the administration of Kara to Ala-ul-Mulk (the uncle of Ziauddin Barani), who sent fabricated news about Alauddin’s movements to Jalaluddin.
On 26 February 1296, Alauddin left Kara with an 8000-strong cavalry. He marched to Chanderi, and then secretly moved to Bhilsa. Next, he crossed the Vindhya range, and reached Achalpur. Until this point, Alauddin had moved quickly to prevent any attacks from the local rulers of central India. However, at Achalpur, he allowed his troops to rest for two days to prepare for the raid. To avoid any attacks, he spread the news that he was a discontented nobleman who had come to seek asylum after rebelling against Jalaluddin.
From Achalpur, Alauddin marched to Devagiri via a pass known as Ghati Lajaura (or Lasaura). At this pass, Alauddin faced resistance from Kanhan, a feudatory of the Yadava king Ramachandra. According to the 14th-century historian Isami, Kanhan’s army included two women commanders who fought like “tigresses”, and forced Alauddin to fall back. However, Alauddin’s second charge was successful and resulted in a complete rout of Kanhan’s forces.Devagiri was a fortified city, but it was largely unprotected when Alauddin reached there. The fortifications had weakened because of complacency of the Yadavas, who had not faced any recent attacks on their capital. The major portion of the Yadava army was away on an expedition led by the crown prince Simhana.Rama Chandra hastily collected 2,000 to 3,000 soldiers and met the invader at Lasura, twelve miles from Devagiri.
But he was defeated by Ala-ud-din’s vastly superior army and compelled to take shelter within his fort , which was located on the top of a hill. Alauddin’s army plundered houses and businesses in the lower part of the city, which had been left undefended. The invaders imprisoned the prominent merchants and Brahmins of the city. They also captured 30-40 elephants and around 1,000 horses from the royal stables.
Rama Chandra was frightened by the news and agreed to make peace. He made over to the invader 1,400 pounds of gold, a large quantity of precious pearls and other things.
Ala- ud-din was preparing to depart when the Raja’s son, Shankar Deva arrived near Devagiri, Ramachandra sent him a message advising him to honour the peace treaty, as the invading army was very powerful. However, Simhana ignored his father’s advice, and sent a message to Alauddin, asking the invader to return all the loot and retreat.Alauddin left a 1000-strong cavalry under Nusrat Khan in the city and led the rest of his men to fight against Simhana. The Yadava army, which outnumbered Alauddin’s force, overcame the invaders in the initial part of the battle. When Nusrat Khan received this news, he left the city without waiting for Alauddin’s order and led his army to the battlefield. The Yadavas mistook his contingent for the rumored 20,000-strong cavalry and fled from the battlefield in panic.
Alauddin then returned to the fort and laid a siege. He ordered several Brahmin and merchant prisoners to be killed, and paraded close relatives and nobles of Ramachandra in front of the fort. At first, Ramachandra considered seeking assistance from the neighbouring Hindu kings. However, it was soon discovered that the fort did not have sufficient food provisions: the Yadavas had bought inside the fort around 2,000-3,000 bags left by panicked merchants when Alauddin’s army first reached the city. They had assumed that these bags contained grain, but it was discovered that they contained only salt.A dejected Ramachandra then pleaded with Alauddin for a peace treaty. Alauddin, who wanted to return to Kara quickly, agreed to a truce. This time, he demanded a much larger sum as war indemnity.
600 mann of gold
1,000 mann of silver
7 mann of pearls
2 mann of precious stones including rubies, sapphires, diamonds, and emeralds
4,000 pieces of silk and other items
In addition, Ramachandra agreed to send the revenues from the Achalpur province to Alauddin.
The Yadava king Ramachandra had agreed to pay an annual tribute to Alauddin after the Alauddin’s 1296 raid of the Yadava capital Devagiri. However, in the mid-1300s, he stopped sending the tribute, as Alauddin remained occupied with his campaigns in northern India.As a result, Alauddin sent a force led by his general Malik Kafur to subjugate Ramachandra. According to the 14th century chronicler Isami, the decision of not paying the tribute was that of Ramachandra’s son and his associates. According to some medieval writers, another reason for this campaign was the pursuit of the Vaghela princess Devaladevi. During his 1299 invasion of Gujarat, Alauddin had captured the Vaghela queen Kamaladevi, who later married him in Delhi. In 1304, Alauddin annexed Gujatat to the Delhi Sultanate, forcing the Vaghela king Vaghela to flee to the Yadava kingdom, where Ramachandra gave Karna the principality of Baglana.Malik Kafur assembled a 30,000-strong cavalry at Tilpat near Delhi, and then marched towards Devagiri via Dhar.His army was reinforced by the forces of Khavaja Haji, Ainul Mulk Multani and Alp Khan. After crossing Malwa, Malik Kafur sent Alp Khan to Baglana to capture Devaladevi forcefully, while he himself marched to Devagiri.As Alp Khan invaded Baglana, Karna found himself in a difficult situation, and agreed to marry his daughter to Simhana. Devaladevi was sent on a journey to Devagiri, escorted by a small party under Simhana’s brother Bhillama. Bhillama’s party was intercepted by a contingent of Alp Khan’s army. Devaladevi’s horse was wounded by arrow, and she was captured by Dilawar Panchami, an officer of Alp Khan. She was taken to Alp Khan, who sent her to Delhi.Meanwhile, at Devagiri, the defenders offered a weak resistance, and Malik Kafur achieved an easy victory. Kafur took Ramachandra and his family to Delhi to personally acknowledge Alauddin’s suzerainty. In Delhi, Alauddin treated Ramachandra well, and honoured him with the title Rai Rayan. According to Barani, Alauddin gave him 100,000 gold tankas (coins), and the principality of Navsari in Gujarat.Ramachandra stayed at Delhi for six months. By the end of 1308, he came back to Devagiri, where he ruled as a vassal of Alauddin. He remained loyal to Alauddin till his death, and helped his army carry out the subsequent southern campaigns of Warangal and Dwarasamudra.
Shankar Deva of Devagiri was a patriotic and energetic ruler, and was anxious to throw off the Turkish yoke. After Kafur’s return to Delhi he did not remit the usual yearly tribute. The Sultan, therefore, despatched Malik Kafur once again in 1313 to call Shankar Deva to account. Shankar Deva was defeated and killed .
Harapala Deva, the successor of Shankar Deva in Devagiri, declared himself independent and banished the Turkish garrison from his country.who was probably a son-in-law of the former Yadava monarch Ramachandra, and his prime minister Raghava (or Raghu).Mubarak Shah wanted to recapture Devagiri immediately after his ascension, but his counsellors had advised him against attempting to do so without consolidating his rule in Delhi first. In April 1317, during the second year of his reign, Mubarak Shah marched to Devagiri with a large army.When the army reached Devagiri, all the local chiefs except Raghava and Harapaladeva accepted Mubarak Shah’s suzerainty without offering any resistance.Raghava and his nearly 10,000-strong cavalry, as well as Harapaladeva, fled to the hilly region near Devagiri. The Delhi generals Khusrau Khan and Malik Qutlugh (who held the title amir-i shikar) led an army to pursue them. The Delhi forces completely routed Raghava’s army. Khusrau Khan dispatched a force led by amir-i koh Malik Ikhtiyaruddin Talbagha (son of Yaghda) to pursue Harapaladeva, who was wounded and captured after 2-3 skirmishes. Harapaladeva was presented before Mubarak Shah, Harapaladeva was flayed and his skin was stretched open, while his head was placed on one of the gates of Devagiri.
The whole of Devagiri was divided into districts and placed in the hands of Turkish officers. Garrisons were established in the country. Mubarak built a mosque at Devagiri from the materials of the Hindu temples wich he demolished,which has been converted into a Bharatmata Temple now. He appointed Malik Yaklaki to be the governor of Devagiri